National Consumers League releases its Top Food and Nutrition Policy Priorities for 2022

July 20, 2022

Media contact: National Consumers League – Katie Brown,, (202) 207-2832

Washington, DC – At a time of significant change in the food industry, the National Consumers League (NCL) today released a food policy agenda to improve food safety, reduce sodium in the diet, achieve better portion control, increase transparency in food and beverage labeling, and promote a more sustainable food system. Additionally, NCL is calling for a national strategy to ensure there will be an ample supply of safe infant formula products in the US along with aggressive regulatory oversight.

“Currently, over 335 million people live in the US, and all are consumers who deserve to be represented in the regulation of the foods and beverages they consume and serve to their families,” said Sally Greenberg, NCL’s Executive Director. “Especially now when technology is changing food production, food safety protocols, and the composition of novel and reformulated foods and beverages, NCL will speak for consumers on strengthening the food safety system, filling the gaps in food labeling, alleviating food insecurity, and reducing food waste.”

Addressing serious food safety lapses and areas where regulation has not caught up to changes in food production, manufacturing, and market trends, NCL’s agenda concentrates on 11 priorities where education and changes in public policy will have a direct and positive impact on the American public:

1. Strengthen the Food Safety System

As the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) moves forward with its New Era of Smarter Food Safety Blueprint, NCL will press FDA to finalize its Food Traceability Proposed Rule, enabling rapid traceback to the source of a contaminated food. Similarly, NCL will stress the need for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to modernize poultry safety rules and update food safety rules, such as expanded pathogen testing in meat and poultry products and updated safe handling instructions label for these products.

2. Ensure the Safety and Availability of Infant Formula

The critical shortage of infant formula in the U.S. requires a national strategy to ensure there will be an ample supply of safe infant formula products in the US along with aggressive regulatory oversight of the safety protocols at U.S. manufacturing facilities. NCL will also advocate for policies that increase the number of companies manufacturing infant formula, and changes in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program that allow for more flexibility in the range of infant formula products available through WIC.

3. Make Alcohol Facts Labeling Mandatory

Since 2003, NCL and the Center for Science in the Public Interest have taken the lead in pressing the federal agency that regulates most alcoholic beverages – the Treasury Department’s Bureau of Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) – to issue rules requiring an easy-to-read, standardized “Alcohol Facts” label on all beer, wine and distilled spirits products. Because this

labeling now appears on hard ciders, wine coolers, certain beers and other products regulated by the FDA, NCL, CSPI and the public health community are stepping up the fight to make mandatory alcohol labeling a reality.

4. Reduce Excess Sodium in the Diet

Because Americans on average consume 50 percent more sodium per day than is recommended, NCL will continue to raise awareness of the goal set by FDA to lower sodium intake to 2,300 milligrams (mg) per day and encourage consumers to use the Nutrition Facts label to choose products with less sodium, reduced sodium or no sodium added.

5. Require Labeling of Caffeine Content

While FDA considers 400 mg of caffeine per day as the amount not generally associated with dangerous side effects, the agency only requires food labels to disclose whether there is added caffeine in the food or beverage, not the total amount. Therefore, NCL is calling for new policy requiring all products containing caffeine to list the amount of caffeine per serving and per container.

6. Ensure Transparency in the Labeling of Plant-Based Meat Alternatives

In June 2022, NCL released a new report, Education and Transparency in Labeling Plant-Based Meat Alternatives: A Consumer-Focused Agenda to Improve Understanding and Decision-Making of Plant-Based Meats, which lays out seven priorities for regulatory action, including the requirement that labels on PBMAs are standardized and clarify the protein source and that nutrition/health claims for these products undergo FDA review and are supported by available scientific evidence. 

7. Improve the Labeling of Alternative Sweeteners

Although NCL applauds FDA’s decision to include “Added Sugars” on the recently updated Nutrition Facts Label, the organization supports a Citizen Petition to ensure transparent labeling of substitute sweeteners and is urging FDA to stop misleading claims, such as “No Added Sugars” and “Zero Sugar,” that imply the product is healthier than the original without disclosing that the sugar reduction resulted from reformulating with artificial substances and sugar alcohols. 

8. Modernize Food Standards of Identity

Because many “standards of identity” – recipes for what a food product must contain and how it is manufactured – are now 75 and even 80 years old and out of date, NCL supports FDA’s action plan to modernize food standards of identity. However, NCL urges FDA to focus on several food products where updating SOIs will lead to healthier offerings, such as olive oil, Greek yogurt, and canned tuna.

9. Improve Federal Nutrition Education and Food Labeling Policies by Elevating the Role of Portion Control and Balanced Food Choices, Revising the Definition of “Healthy,” and Developing Uniform Front of Pack Nutrition Rating Symbols

NCL is implementing a three-phased strategy to improve nutrition education and food labeling policies, which entails: 1) education and advocacy that emphasizes portion control and ensures consumers know the recommended daily intake of calories is 2,000 per day, 2) furthering FDA’s efforts to define the term “heathy” on food labels by addressing if and how added sugar content is calculated; and 3) encouraging FDA to adopt a “Traffic Light” labeling system to depict “healthy” foods on the front of the package.

10. Increase Funding and Access to Federal Nutrition Programs

NCL’s advocacy to enhance the Supplemental Nutrition Assistant Program (SNAP) during the COVID-19 pandemic helped to increase access to healthy food to people in need. Now, NCL is working with partners to broaden the public health impact of SNAP by reducing the eligibility requirements, strengthening the nutritional goal for SNAP and providing incentives for healthier foods sold in retail establishments.

11. Reduce the Amount of Food Waste

Because about 90 billion pounds of food goes uneaten every year in the US, NCL is working to help the nation meet the goal of reducing food waste by 50 percent by 2030. As such, we will continue working with USDA, FDA and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to raise awareness of food loss and waste and inform consumers of how they can reduce food waste in their homes.



About the National Consumers League (NCL) 

The National Consumers League, founded in 1899, is America’s pioneer consumer organization. Our mission is to protect and promote social and economic justice for consumers and workers in the United States and abroad. For more information, visit

NCL applauds the FDA for renewing its focus on infant formula

July 14, 2022

Media contact: National Consumers League – Katie Brown,, (202) 207-2832

Washington, DC— The National Consumers League (NCL) applauds the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for taking strong steps to assure consumers that infant formula coming from overseas has been properly inspected and is free from contaminants or adulterants and therefore safe for infants.

“Consumers should have confidence that the infant formula that is being imported to the U.S. … involved a thorough review of the information provided by the companies, including details about the product’s nutritional adequacy and safety, microbiological testing results, labeling information, and importantly, details about the manufacturing facility’s food safety production practices and inspection history,” according to a press statement posted on

Over the past few months NCL, the nation’s oldest consumer advocacy organization, has issued several statements on the infant formula shortage. The shortage was caused primarily by the unconscionable and unsanitary practices at Abbott’s Michigan infant formula facility when it failed to follow safety protocols, falsified documents to the FDA, and then shipped contaminated formula resulting in babies contracting foodborne illnesses and as many as nine infant deaths, according to FDA documents. Abbott’s reckless actions – coupled with the FDA’s slow response to the outbreak – finally lead to both parties issuing a recall of the faulty formula and ultimately triggered a nationwide shortage of powdered infant formula.

As FDA renews its focus on infant formula, NCL applauds the agency’s determined outreach to keep parents informed about how to read food labels from products made abroad. These labels use metric measurements that consumers in the United States may not easily comprehend. Most importantly, FDA has ramped up inspections of the products to ensure good and safe manufacturing processes.

Below are several statements on the infant formula crisis issued by NCL in the past few months, one of which includes our June 16 testimony before a Senate Judiciary Subcommittee.



About the National Consumers League (NCL) 

The National Consumers League, founded in 1899, is America’s pioneer consumer organization. Our mission is to protect and promote social and economic justice for consumers and workers in the United States and abroad. For more information, visit

A New Patient-Centered Action Agenda calls for people with obesity to have the same rights and access to care as people with other chronic diseases

July 7, 2022

Media contact: National Consumers League – Katie Brown,, (202) 207-2832

Washington, DC— The National Consumers League (NCL) today released A New Patient-Centered Obesity Action Agenda: Changing the Trajectory of Obesity Through Patient Empowerment, Health Professional Intervention and Supportive Government Policies, a new report with a blueprint to change how Americans think about obesity, empower people with obesity to get the best care, and afford those with obesity the same access to care as adults with other serious chronic diseases.

Issued as a call to action, the report was prepared in consultation with a panel of leading obesity specialists as a roadmap for overcoming one of the difficult challenges affecting US adults now living with obesity: despite significant advances in the understanding and treatment of obesity, only 10 percent of people with obesity get help from medical professionals,[1] meaning the disease remains largely undiagnosed and undertreated. Accordingly, only 30 million[2] of the estimated 108 million adults living with obesity[3] have been diagnosed with the disease and only around 2 percent of those eligible for anti-obesity medications have been prescribed these drugs.[4]

The consequences of undertreatment affect virtually every aspect of the healthcare system. Obesity not only has a negative impact on almost every aspect of health and well-being, but it worsens the outcomes of over 230 obesity-related chronic diseases, from type 2 diabetes and heart disease to some forms of cancer.[5] Accordingly, obesity is responsible for an approximately 300,000 premature deaths each year[6] deaths and costs the U.S. economy an estimated $1.72 trillion annually in direct and indirect costs.[7]

“Although obesity is one of today’s most visible public health problems, it is often ignored and discounted as a serious disease, resulting in a health crisis that has only worsened with time,” said
Sally Greenberg, NCL’s Executive Director. “This report focuses attention on the numerous public perception, provider and policy-related factors that preclude Americans with overweight and obesity from getting effective treatment and must be addressed if obesity outcomes are to improve in the US.”

To change the trajectory of the obesity epidemic, the report calls for a national mobilization to overcome the “human” factors– incorrect beliefs about the cause and treatment of obesity, prejudice towards people due to their size, lack of training for health providers, access barriers, and outdated government policies – that continue to prevent Americans from seeking and obtaining obesity care. Towards this end, NCL’s patient-centered action agenda identifies nine priorities for action:

  1. Redefine Obesity for the American Public as a Treatable Chronic Disease

Although the American Medical Association classifies obesity as a chronic disease requiring treatment, three-quarters of Americans believe obesity results from a lack of willpower. Thus, redefining obesity as a treatable chronic condition will provide a new context for health providers and patients to have a positive discussion about weight, leading to more people getting diagnosed and treated.

  1. Adopt Patient-First Language for Obesity

Unlike other chronic diseases where health professionals use people-first language that puts a person before a diagnosis, practitioners routinely use terms to describe obesity that can be off-putting and demoralizing. To change this situation, the National Consumers supports the agenda of the People-First Initiative launched by the Obesity Action Coalition, which advocates for widespread adoption of people-first language by practitioners in all healthcare settings.

  1. Make Combatting Weight Stigma a National Priority

Studies show that 40 percent of healthcare professionals –physicians, nurses, dietitians, psychologists and medical students – admit to having negative reactions based on a person’s size.[8]Addressing this pervasive problem requires a unified national initiative that makes the impact of weight stigma “real” for clinicians and the public and disseminates the latest information to health providers on strategies to reduce weight stigma.

  1. Elevate the Need for Physician Training in Obesity

A recent study of 40 US medical schools finds that 30 percent of these institutions provide little or no education in nutrition and obesity interventions while one third of schools reported no obesity education programs in place.[9] These findings underscore the urgency for US medical schools to change their priorities and develop curricula that comprehensively addresses the disease of obesity.

  1. Establish Excess Weight as a Vital Sign

Besides body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate and respiration, health providers routinely measure height and weight at each visit. Thus, if healthcare professionals were to calculate and provide patients with their Body Mass Index (BMI) at the time of the office visit, practitioners could have a tool to discuss excess weight when patients are most receptive to discussing their health status.  It is recognized that BMI is a crude measure and not the sole predictor of obesity but when combined with patient-friendly information that explains the level of weight and options for treatment, this interaction could initiate a positive, respectful conversation about obesity care.

  1. Provide the Tools for a Doctor-Patient Dialogue on Excess Weight

A major reason primary care providers (PCPs) are reluctant to provide obesity counseling is the lack of informational tools to have conversations with patients about their weight status and care options. Therefore, a unified effort to make available to PCPs evidence-based, patient-friendly content on obesity will facilitate a better dialogue between clinicians and patients and promote shared decision-making.

  1. Establish Coverage of Obesity as a Standard Benefit Across Insurers and Health Plans

Although employers and insurers are starting to cover treatment options for obesity in employee benefit packages, too many people continue to be denied coverage or face access barriers, such as step therapy and prior authorization, that delay treatment. Improving obesity outcomes therefore requires supporting legislative efforts, like the “Safe Step Act” that would require group health plans to provide an exception process for step-therapy protocols. It also necessitates collaboration among payers, providers, policymakers, and advocates to establish a standard, affordable benefit for the prevention and treatment of obesity that applies across plan types and payers.

  1. End Outdated Medicare Rules That Exclude Coverage for Necessary Obesity Care

Today, the many millions of Americans enrolled in the Medicare program are denied safe and effective obesity treatment due to outdated Medicare Part D rules that exclude coverage for FDA-approved obesity drugs and Medicare Part B policies that places undue restrictions on intensive behavioral therapy by allowing only primary care providers to deliver IBT and severely restricting the physical locations where this care can occur. Congress has the power to change this situation, which is why NCL has joined with the obesity, public health and nutrition communities is pressing for swift passage of the Treat and Reduce Obesity Act (TROA). The proposed legislation would expand Medicare coverage to allow access to IBT from a diverse range of healthcare providers while ending the exclusion for new anti-obesity medications that are improving the standard of care for adult Americans with obesity.

  1. Create a Patients’ Bill of Rights for People with Obesity

For too long, people with obesity have been stigmatized, discriminated against, and have faced significant hurdles and burdensome requirements to receive care. Changing this situation will require giving people with obesity the knowledge, skills and confidence to be advocates for their best obesity care. Therefore, NCL’s patient-centered obesity action agenda calls for the creation of a Patients’ Bill of Rights for People with Obesity based on the recognition that obesity is a treatable disease and everyone with obesity deserves the same level of attention and care as those with other chronic conditions.


About the Report

To prepare the report, NCL partnered with the Obesity Care Advocacy Network (OCAN) to host a roundtable discussion in December 2021where public health specialists, leading professional societies, the minority health field and the obesity policy community assessed the state of the science on obesity today, the scope and cost of the disease in the US and the major barriers impeding quality obesity care with special attention to the “human” obstacles that keep people with obesity from seeking or obtaining treatment. Additionally, NCL conducted a literature review to gather additional insights, especially regarding how to change how people with obesity see themselves, so they become empowered to advocate for their care as patients with a chronic disease. Based on this assessment, NCL drafted the report, which was vetted by experts participating in the roundtable, and developed the policy recommendations included in the Patient-Centered Obesity Action Agenda.


About the National Consumers League (NCL) 

The National Consumers League, founded in 1899, is America’s pioneer consumer organization. Our mission is to protect and promote social and economic justice for consumers and workers in the United States and abroad. For more information, visit


[1] Stokes A, et al. Prevalence and Determinants of Engagement with Obesity Care in the United States. Obesity. Vol. 26, Issue 5; May 2018, 814-818

[2] PharMetrics-Ambulatory EMR database, 2018. Novo Nordisk Inc.

[3] Hales CM,, et al. Prevalence of Obesity and Severe Obesity Among Adults: United States, 2017-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NCHS Data Brief. No. 360. February 2020.

[4] PharMetrics-Ambulatory EMR database, 2018. Novo Nordisk Inc.

[5] Obesity Care Advocacy Network. Fact Sheet: Obesity Care Beyond Weight Loss

[6] Allison DB, et al. Annual deaths attributable to obesity in the United States JAMA 1999Oct 27 282(16)1530–8.

[7] Milken Institute (October 2018), “America’s Obesity Crisis: The Health and Economic Costs of Excess Weight.”

[8] Fruh SM, et al. Obesity Stigma and Bias. J Nurse Pract. 2016 Jul-Aug; 12(7): 425–432.

[9] Butch WS, et al. Low priority of obesity education leads to lack of medical student’ preparedness to effectively treat patients with obesity; results from the U.S. medical school obesity education benchmark study. BMC Med Educ 20, 23 (2020)

Consumer and passenger rights organizations send letter to Congress urging inclusion of airline reforms in 2023 FAA Reauthorization

July 5, 2022

Media contact: National Consumers League – Melody Merin,, (202) 207-2831

Washington, D.C. — The National Consumers League (NCL), along with eight other consumer advocacy groups, sent a joint letter to the House Committee on Transportation & Infrastructure and to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, & Transportation urging action on travelers’ urgent needs and priorities that have been exacerbated by the pandemic. In the letter, the nine organizations identified a range of legislative reforms needed to address consumers’ concerns—all of which can be enacted via next year’s reauthorization of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). This includes allowing minor children to be seated with their parents and caregivers at no extra cost, enabling travelers to board the next available flight (regardless of airline) when their original flight is delayed, and requiring ancillary fees to be transparent and proportional to the cost of the service provided.

The full list of passenger priorities can be found in the letter to Congress below.


July 1, 2022


The Honorable Peter DeFazio


Committee on Transportation & Infrastructure

United States House of Representatives

Washington, DC 20515


The Honorable Maria Cantwell


Committee on Commerce, Science, & Transportation

United States Senate

Washington, DC 20510


The Honorable Sam Graves

Ranking Member

Committee on Transportation & Infrastructure

United States House of Representatives

Washington, DC 20515


The Honorable Roger Wicker

Ranking Member

Committee on Commerce, Science, & Transportation

United States Senate

Washington, DC 20510


RE:        Consumer and Passenger Rights Organizations’ Priorities for the 2023 FAA Reauthorization Legislation

Dear Chairman DeFazio, Chair Cantwell, Ranking Member Graves, and Ranking Member Wicker,

The undersigned consumer and passenger rights organizations urge you to use the opportunity of reauthorizing the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) next year to address a range of urgently needed consumer protections and industry reforms. Following Congress’s appropriation of more than $50 billion to the air travel industry during the pandemic,[1] travelers across the United States have been clear in their demands for changes to the business practices of air carriers. We believe the following legislative reforms are urgently needed to address consumers’ concerns.

Minimize Flight Cancellations and Delays

Congress should institute an industry-wide reciprocity requirement. When a flight is significantly delayed or cancelled for any reason, passengers of that flight should be transferred to another carrier if the second carrier could transport the travelers more quickly than the original carrier. This would benefit travelers by ensuring minimal disruption to their schedules and incentivize airlines to reliably maintain their flight schedules, increasing competition in the airline industry.

Hold airlines accountable for chronically delayed and cancelled flights. Air carriers should be required to maintain a minimum percentage of on-time flights per month based on a review of the carrier’s published schedule and actual performance. This would allow the Department of Transportation (DOT) to hold airlines accountable when they routinely publish inoperable flight schedules.

Require plain language notices of passenger compensation rights under U.S. and international law throughout public airports. Such notices should specifically include rights afforded by the Montreal Convention[2] and the EU’s Flight Compensation Regulation[3], as many American travelers may be unaware of the international rights to which they are entitled.

Reform Airline Fees, Seating, and Rewards

Include the Forbidding Airlines from Imposing Ridiculous (FAIR) Fees Act in the 2023 FAA Reauthorization. The FAIR Fees Act would prohibit air carriers from charging fees (including baggage, seating, and reservation change fees) that are not reasonable and proportional to the costs of the services provided.[4]

Ensure that parents and caregivers can be seated with their minor children at no additional charge. Congress has previously urged the DOT to act on family seating requirements in the 2016 FAA Reauthorization[5], yet the only action the Department took was to update a web page on the issue. Parents and caregivers should not be required to pay a fee to ensure they can sit next to their minor children on a flight.

Establish basic services standards for air travel. Passengers should be entitled to, at a minimum: a seat, a boarding pass, check-in services, a personal item, a carry-on item, water, and an accessible lavatory included in the ticket price. Additionally, air carriers should be required to maintain a toll-free customer service phone number, with adequate staffing to ensure wait times do not exceed 30 minutes.

Require transparent, upfront pricing of airfare at the outset of the purchase process. Consumers respond to an advertised ticket price, but are then faced with additional fees for basic services like baggage, seat reservation, and other ancillary charges throughout the purchase process. This often results in a much higher total cost than originally advertised. Clearly displaying what is included in the fare from the onset will help alleviate the sticker shock many travelers face by the end of their purchase and promote competition between airlines.

End the excise tax exemption for ancillary service fees. Ancillary fees—a multi-billion dollar source of revenue—currently escape excise taxation, depriving the Airport & Airway Trust Fund (AATF) of resources needed to maintain critical infrastructure.[6] This loophole is a significant incentive for airlines to pass ever more ancillary fees on to consumers.

Narrowly define “service” as it relates to federal preemption and the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 (ADA). Judicial interpretations of the ADA’s preemption of the regulation of conduct which “relates to service” are expansive and preclude the regulation of virtually any action an air carrier takes during a flight or customer service operation. This effectively preempts states from protecting travelers in most situations. Removing the phrase “relates to” and clarifying that “service” only includes the frequency and scheduling of transportation on a certain route will reinstate Congress’s original intent in the ADA while enabling state consumer protection agencies to backstop the DOT’s role in protecting the flying public.

Establish a minimum passenger seat size. Shrinking seat sizes cause health risks, passenger discomfort, and create potential evacuation hazards. The 2018 FAA Reauthorization required the FAA to set minimum passenger seat width and pitch within one year of the Reauthorization’s enactment. Almost four years later, the FAA still has not fulfilled this mandate. Congress must act when the agency will not.

Require reasonable notice to consumers before devaluation of their frequent flyer program miles. Currently, miles accrued via frequent flyer programs lack important consumer safeguards. A minimum of 60-day notice before devaluing travelers’ frequent flyer miles will increase transparency and allow consumers to make better informed decisions.

Enable Stronger Enforcement of Passenger Protections

Empower state attorneys general to enforce federal consumer protection laws. The DOT lacks the resources to address many valid complaints from travelers. For example, despite a record surge in consumer complaints during the pandemic, the DOT has initiated only a single enforcement action against an airline.[7] Allowing state attorneys general to share enforcement of federal consumer protection laws with the DOT will provide additional avenues for consumers to seek redress.

Establish a private right of action to allow consumers to enforce federal consumer protection laws. Empowering passengers to bring their own actions in response to unfair, deceptive, and discriminatory practices will help to hold air carriers accountable without waiting for federal intervention.

Direct the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to report on DOT rulemaking efficiency. The DOT’s failure to issue statutorily required regulations regarding passenger seat size is not an isolated instance. Congress should direct the GAO to produce a report examining the reasons that the DOT has not yet completed statutorily mandated regulations from previous FAA reauthorization bills.

Prioritize Consumer Voices and Experiences

Renew the charter for the Aviation Consumer Protection Advisory Committee (ACPAC). The ACPAC has provided expertise on matters of consumer protection to the DOT for over a decade. It will continue to play a critical role as the air travel industry recovers from the COVID-19 pandemic. The ACPAC has been an important venue for consumers to make their voices heard at the DOT. Absent Congressional action, the authorization for the ACPAC will expire on June 28, 2023.

Require at least two passenger representatives on airport authority governing boards. Underrepresentation of passenger interests on airport authority governing boards has allowed many airports to deprioritize passenger convenience, faster travel time, and consumer expenses. Conditioning federal subsidies and licensure for airports on passenger representation on airport authority governing boards would incentivize airports to make travelers’ airport experience a priority.

Ease the creation of new airports. The last major airport was built in 1995; increasing the number of airports would help with congestion and create new, possibly shorter flight paths. Ending the prohibition on federal ownership of airports would free up additional resources for airport construction projects. Additionally, state and local governments should be encouraged to build new airports, especially at major hubs.

The undersigned consumer and travel advocacy organizations thank you for your attention to these important passenger protection issues as you begin the process of reauthorizing the FAA.



American Economic Liberties Project

Business Travel Coalition

Consumer Action

Consumer Federation of America

National Consumers League

Travelers United

U.S. Public Interest Research Group


[1] Politico. Congress to airlines: Where did all the Covid money go? 2021.

[2] The International Air Transport Association. Convention For The Unification Of Certain Rules For International Carriage By Air. 1999.

[3] EUR-Lex. Regulation (EC) No 261/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 establishing common rules on compensation and assistance to passengers in the event of denied boarding and of cancellation or long delay of flights, and repealing Regulation (EEC) No 295/91 (Text with EEA relevance) – Commission Statement. (2004).

[4] H.R.6215 – FAIR Fees Act of 2021. (2021).

[5] Public Law 114–190—July 15, 2016: Sec. 2309. Family Seating. (2016).

[6] U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of Inspector General. Changes in Airline Service Different Significantly for Smaller Communities but Limited Data on Ancillary Fees Hinders Further Analysis. (2020).

[7] U.S. Department of Transportation. Air Canada Settlement Agreement. (2021).


About the National Consumers League (NCL) 

The National Consumers League, founded in 1899, is America’s pioneer consumer organization. Our mission is to protect and promote social and economic justice for consumers and workers in the United States and abroad. For more information, visit